Subscribe free to our newsletters via your
  Oil and Gas News from OilGasDaily.Com  


Subscribe free to our newsletters via your




















OIL AND GAS
Fracking linked to most induced earthquakes in Western Canada
by Staff Writers
San Francisco CA (SPX) Mar 30, 2016


The fracking process uses high-pressure injections of fluid to break apart rock and release trapped oil and natural gas. Both fracking and wastewater injections can increase the fluid pressure in the natural pores and fractures in rock, or change the state of stress on existing faults, to produce earthquakes.

A survey of a major oil and natural gas-producing region in Western Canada suggests a link between hydraulic fracturing or "fracking" and induced earthquakes in the region, according to a new report published online in the journal Seismological Research Letters.

The study's findings differ from those reported from oil and gas fields in the central United States, where fracking is not considered to be the main cause of a sharp rise in induced seismicity in the region. Instead, the proliferation of hundreds of small earthquakes in that part of the U.S. is thought to be caused primarily by massive amounts of wastewater injected back into the ground after oil and gas recovery.

The SRL study does not examine why induced seismicity would be linked to different processes in the central U.S. and western Canada. However, some oil and gas fields in the U.S., especially Oklahoma, use "very large amounts of water" in their operations, leading to much more wastewater disposal than in Canadian operations, said Gail M. Atkinson of Western University.

It is possible that massive wastewater disposal in the U.S. is "masking another signal" of induced seismicity caused by fracking, Atkinson said. "So we're not entirely sure that there isn't more seismicity in the central U.S. from hydraulic fracturing than is widely recognized."

The fracking process uses high-pressure injections of fluid to break apart rock and release trapped oil and natural gas. Both fracking and wastewater injections can increase the fluid pressure in the natural pores and fractures in rock, or change the state of stress on existing faults, to produce earthquakes.

The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) contains one of the world's largest oil and gas reserves, and is dotted with thousands of fracking wells drilled in multi-stage horizontal operations. Atkinson and her colleagues compared the relationship of 12,289 fracking wells and 1236 wastewater disposal wells to magnitude 3 or larger earthquakes in an area of 454,000 square kilometers near the border between Alberta and British Columbia, between 1985 and 2015.

The researchers performed statistical analyses to determine which earthquakes were most likely to be related to hydraulic fracturing, given their location and timing. The analyses identified earthquakes as being related to fracking if they took place close to a well and within a time window spanning the start of fracking to three months after its completion, and if other causes, such as wastewater disposal, were not involved.

Atkinson and colleagues found 39 hydraulic fracturing wells (0.3% of the total of fracking wells studied), and 17 wastewater disposal wells (1% of the disposal wells studied) that could be linked to earthquakes of magnitude 3 or larger.

While these percentages sound small, Atkinson pointed out that thousands of hydraulic fracturing wells are being drilled every year in the WCSB, increasing the likelihood of earthquake activity. "We haven't had a large earthquake near vulnerable infrastructure yet," she said, "but I think it's really just a matter of time before we start seeing damage coming out of this."

The study also confirmed that in the last few years nearly all the region's overall seismicity of magnitude 3 or larger has been induced by human activity. More than 60% of these quakes are linked to hydraulic fracture, about 30-35% come from disposal wells, and only 5 to 10% of the earthquakes have a natural tectonic origin, Atkinson said.

Atkinson said the new numbers could be used to recalculate the seismic hazard for the region, which could impact everything from building codes to safety assessments of critical infrastructure such as dams and bridges. "Everything has been designed and assessed in terms of earthquake hazard in the past, considering the natural hazard," she said. "And now we've fundamentally changed that, and so our seismic hazard picture has changed."

The researchers were also surprised to find that their data showed no relationship between the volume of fluid injected at a hydraulic fracturing well site and the maximum magnitude of its induced earthquake.

"It had previously been believed that hydraulic fracturing couldn't trigger larger earthquakes because the fluid volumes were so small compared to that of a disposal well," Atkinson explained. "But if there isn't any relationship between the maximum magnitude and the fluid disposal, then potentially one could trigger larger events if the fluid pressures find their way to a suitably stressed fault."

Atkinson and her colleagues hope to refine their analyses to include other variables, such as information about extraction processes and the geology at individual well sites, "to help us understand why some areas seem much more prone to induced seismicity than others."

The scientists say the seismic risks associated with hydraulic fracturing could increase as oil and gas companies expand fracking's use in developing countries, which often contain dense populations and earthquake-vulnerable infrastructure.

.


Related Links
Seismological Society of America
All About Oil and Gas News at OilGasDaily.com






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Previous Report
OIL AND GAS
Seven million Americans threatened by human-induced quakes
Washington (AFP) March 28, 2016
Around seven million people in the United States live in areas at risk of damaging, human-induced earthquakes that are often linked to fracking, a report out Monday said. Because the US Geological Survey is including the human-triggered earthquakes on its forecast maps for the first time, the odds of damaging shaking in certain parts of the country is much increased for 2016, it said. Th ... read more


OIL AND GAS
Human impact forms 'striking new pattern' in Earth's global energy flow

Transforming the US transportation system by 2050 to address climate challenges

Economic growth no longer translates into more greenhouse gas: IEA

Long march in Bangladesh against Sundarbans power plant

OIL AND GAS
Chinese researchers develop new battery technology

New chemistries found for liquid batteries

Iron nitride transformers could boost energy storage options

Creation of Jupiter interior, a step towards room temp superconductivity

OIL AND GAS
ORNL invents tougher plastic with 50 percent renewable content

Dung, offal make clean gas at Costa Rica slaughterhouse

The flexible way to greater energy yield

Smaller, cheaper microbial fuel cells turn urine into electricity

OIL AND GAS
Japan utility to scrap reactor over heavy safety costs

'No terror link' in murder of guard at Belgian nuclear centre

Rosatom Studies Ecological Method of Uranium Mining in Tanzania

France's EDF to decide on UK nuclear plant by May: Macron

OIL AND GAS
Palau declares state of emergency over drought

Plants boost extreme temperatures by 5C

Fires, drought in changing climate affecting high-altitude forests

Release of CO2 fastest in 66 million years: study

OIL AND GAS
Newest Tesla electric will aim at middle market

US judge gives VW to April 21 for emissions fix plan

US unveils emergency braking deal with automakers

Industry calls for fast lane for self-driving cars

OIL AND GAS
Iraq says begins offensive to retake IS-held Mosul

IS gains and losses in Iraq and Syria

Calm before the storm at Baghdad protest camp

Jihadist attack kills six soldiers in western Iraq

OIL AND GAS



Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News








The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2016 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.